Types of Intravenous (IV) Solutions

Types of Intravenous (IV)  Solutions
 
Solution                                                                           Tonicity
0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline); (0.9% NS)                        Isotonic
5% dextrose in water (D5W)                                                               Isotonic
5% dextrose in 0.225% saline (D5W/¼ NS)                                   Isotonic
Lactated Ringer’s (LR)                                                                         Isotonic
0.45% sodium chloride (normal saline); (½ NS)                           Hypotonic
0.225% sodium chloride (normal saline); (¼ NS)                         Hypotonic
0.33% sodium chloride (normal saline); (⅓ NS)                            Hypotonic
3% sodium chloride (normal saline); (3% NS)                               Hypertonic
5% sodium chloride (normal saline); (5% NS)                               Hypertonic
10% dextrose in water (D10W)                                                          Hypertonic
5% dextrose in 0.9% sodium chloride
(normal saline); D5W/NS                                                                  Hypertonic
5% dextrose in 0.45% sodium chloride
(normal saline); (D5W/½ NS)                                                         Hypertonic
5% dextrose in lactated Ringer’s (D5LR)                                       Hypertonic
Dextran                                                                                                 Colloid
Albumin                                                                                                Colloid

 

IV Solutions 1

Most Commonly used IV Fluids

Normal Saline (0.9% : Isotonic salt water.
154 mEq/L Na+; 308mOsm/L.
Cheapest and most commonly used resuscitative
] mEq/L imposes on the kidneys an appreciable load of excess Cl- that cannot be rapidly excreted.. Adilutional acidosis may develop by reducing base acidosis bicarb relative to carbonic acid. Thus exist the risk of relative to carbonic acid. fhyperchloremic hyperchloremic acidosis. Only solution that may be acidosis. Only solution that may beadministered with blood products. Does not provide administered with blood products. Does not providefree water or calories. Restores free water or calories. Restores NaCl deficits. deficits.

Lactated Ringer ’s (RL): Isotonic, 273 mOsm/L.
Contains 130 mEq/L Na +, 109 mEq/L Cl-, 28 mEq/L lactate, and 4 lactate, mEq/L K
+. Lactate is used instead of . bicarb because it ’s more stable in IVF during storage. Lactate is converted readily to bicarb by the liver. Has minimal effects on normal body fluid composition and pH.. composition of normal blood serum. Does not provide. calories.
D5W/ ¼NS: Hypertonic, 406 Hypertonic, 406 mOsm/L. Provides 170 calories/L from 5% dextrose. Provides free water for insensible losses and some Na for insensible losses and some Na + to promote renal function and excretion. With added K function and excretion this is an excellent maintenance fluid in postop period.

Hypertonic Saline  (3% NaCl): 1026 mOsm/L & 513 mEq/L Na +. Increases plasma . Increases plasma osmolality osmolality and thereby acts as a plasma expander, increasing thereby acts as a plasma expander, increasing circulatory volume via movement of intracellular and circulatory volume via movement of intracellular and interstitial water into the intravascular space. Risk of interstitial water into the intravascular space. Risk of hypernatremia hypernatremia thus careful thus careful neuro -monitoring and VS.

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