Antibiotic: Aminoglycosides, Uses, Side Effects & Dosage Guideline

Uses of Aminoglycosides

Treatment of serious infections when other less-toxic agents are not effective, are contraindicated, or require adjunctive therapy (e.g., with penicillins or cephalosporins). Used primarily in the treatment of infections caused by gram-negative microorganisms, such as those caused by Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Serratia, and Enterobacter. Inactive against most grampositive microorganisms. Not well absorbed systemically from GI tract (must be administered parenterally for systemic infections). Oral agents are given to suppress intestinal bacteria.

ANTIBIOTIC: AMINOGLYCOSIDES

NameAvailabilityDosage RangeSide Effects
Amikacin (Amikin)I: 50 mg/ml, 250 mg/mlA: 7.5 mg/kg q12h or
15–20 mg/kg once daily C: 7.5 mg/kg q12h
Nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, ototoxicity (both auditory and
vestibular), hypersensitivity (skin itching, redness, rash,
swelling)
Gentamicin
(Garamycin)
I: 10 mg/ml, 40 mg/mlA: 5–7 mg/kg once daily or
1–2.5 mg/kg q8h
C: 1–2.5 mg/kg q8h
Nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, ototoxicity (both auditory and
vestibular), hypersensitivity (skin itching, redness, rash,
swelling)
NeomycinT: 500 mgI: 10 mg/ml, 40 mg/mlNausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Tobramycin (Nebcin)I: 10 mg/ml, 40 mg/mlA: 5–7 mg/kg once daily or
1–2.5 mg/kg q8h
C: 1–2.5 mg/kg q8h
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

ACTION

Bactericidal. Transported across bacterial cell membrane; irreversibly bind to specific receptor proteins of bacterial ribosomes. Interfere with protein synthesis, preventing cell reproduction and eventually causing cell death.

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