Antihistamines drugs are used in treatment of, Allergic rhinitis, urticaria, pruritus, vertigo, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting, sedation, dyskinesia, Parkinsonism.
Antihistamines are a group of drugs which act by block the release or action of histamine, a chemical released during inflammation that increases secretions and narrows airways. Antihistamines are found in multiple OTC preparations that are designed to relieve respiratory symptoms and to treat allergies.
When choosing an antihistamine, the individual patient’s reaction to the drug is usually the governing factor. Because first-generation antihistamines have greater anticholinergic effects with resultant drowsiness, a person who needs to be alert should be given one of the second generation, less-sedating antihistamines. Because of their OTC availability, these drugs are often misused to treat colds and influenza.
First-generation antihistamines include
• buclizine (Bucladin-S),
• carbinoxamine (Histex, Palgic),
• chlorpheniramine (Aller-Chlor and others),
• clemastine (Tavist),
• cyclizine (Marezine),
• cyproheptadine (generic),
• dexchlorpheniramine (generic),
• dimenhydrinate (Dimentabs and others),
• diphenhydramine (Benadryl and others),
• hydroxyzine (Vistaril and others),
• meclizine (Antivert),
• phenindamine (Nolahist),
• promethazine (Phenergan),
• triprolidine (Zymine).
Second-generation antihistamines include
• Azelastine (Astelin),
• cetirizine (Zyrtec),
• desloratadine (Clarinex),
• fexofenadine (Allegra),
• levocetirizine (Xyzal),
Most antihistamines cause drowsiness and impaired motor function early in therapy. They also can cause blurred vision, constipation, and dry mouth and throat. Promethazine may also cause extrapyramidal reactions with high doses.
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