Antihypertensive agents Cheat Sheet

“Treatment of mild to severe hypertension”

Antihypertensive agents include angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II–receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, vasodilators, and other antihypertensive agents, including diuretic agents, ganglionic receptors, renin inhibitors, and sympathetic nervous system drugs. See following table for a complete list of Antihypertensive agents.

antihypertensive-agents

Groups of medications used in the treatment of hypertension.

ACE inhibitors:

Decrease conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and B/P.

Alpha agonists (central action):

Stimulate alpha2- adrenergic receptors in the cardiovascular centers of the CNS, reducing sympathetic outflow and producing an antihypertensive effect.

Alpha antagonists (peripheral action):

Block alpha1- adrenergic receptors in arterioles and veins, inhibiting vasoconstriction and decreasing peripheral vascular resistance, causing a fall in B/P.

Angiotensin receptor blockers:

Block vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by blocking the binding of angiotensin II to AT1 receptors in vascular smooth muscle, helping blood vessels to relax and reduce B/P.

Beta blockers:

Decrease B/P by inhibiting beta1- adrenergic receptors, which lowers heart rate, heart workload, and the heart’s output of blood.

Calcium channel blockers:

Reduce B/P by inhibiting flow of extracellular calcium across cell membranes of vascular tissue, relaxing arterial smooth muscle.

 

Diuretics:

Inhibit sodium (Na) reabsorption, increasing excretion of Na and water. Reduce plasma, extracellular fluid volume, and peripheral vascular resistance.

Renin inhibitors:

Directly inhibit renin, decreasing plasma renin activity (PRA), inhibiting conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin, producing antihypertensive effect.

Vasodilators:

Directly relaxe arteriolar smooth muscle, decreasing vascular resistance. Exact mechanism unknown.

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