Antilipemics drugs are used to lower serum levels of cholesterol and various lipids. These drugs are sometimes called antihyperlipidemic agents used to treat hyperlipidemia (an increase in the level of lipids in the blood).
There is mounting evidence that the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading killer of adults in the Western world, is higher among people with high serum lipid levels.
The cause of CAD is poorly understood, but some evidence indicates that cholesterol and fat may play a major role in disease development. Lipid and triglyceride levels play a role in metabolic syndrome, a collection of factors, including insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, low high-density lipoprotein and high triglyceride levels, hypertension, and proinflammatory and prothrombotic states, that has been shown to increase the incidence of CAD.
How Anti-Lipemmics Drugs works:
Antilipemics lower elevated lipid levels. Bile-sequestering drugs (cholestyramine) lower LDL level by forming insoluble complexes with bile salts, thus triggering cholesterol to leave the bloodstream and other storage areas to make new bile acids.
Fibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil) reduce cholesterol formation, increase sterol excretion, and decrease lipoprotein and triglyceride synthesis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin) interfere with the activity of enzymes that generate cholesterol in the liver. Selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors (ezetimibe) inhibit cholesterol absorption by the small intestine, reducing hepatic cholesterol stores and increasing cholesterol clearance from the blood.
Classes of Anti-Lipemmics Drugs include:
• Bile acid sequestrants,
• HMGCoA reductase inhibitors,
• Cholesterol absorption inhibitor.
• Other drugs that are used to affect lipid levels do not fall into any of the classes but are approved for use in combination with changes in diet and exercise.
Antilipemics commonly cause GI upset. Bile-sequestering drugs may cause bloating, cholelithiasis, constipation, and steatorrhea. Fibric acid derivatives may cause cholelithiasis and have other GI or CNS effects. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may affect liver function or cause rash, pruritus, increased CK levels, rhabdomyolysis, and myopathy.
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