Causes of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

ARDS is a form of pulmonary edema that leads to ARF, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results from increased permeability of the alveolocapillary membrane. Although severe ARDS may be fatal, recovering patients may have little or no permanent lung damage.
The following are risk factors for developing ARDS.

Causes of ARDS

 ARDS may result from:
  Aspiration of gastric contents
  Sepsis (primarily gram-negative)
  Trauma (such as lung contusion, head injury, and long-bone fracture with fat emboli)
  Oxygen toxicity
  Viral, bacterial, or fungal pneumonia
  Microemboli (fat or air emboli or disseminated intravascular coagulation)
  Drug overdose (such as barbiturates and opioids)
  Blood transfusion
  Smoke or chemical inhalation (such as nitrous oxide, chlorine, ammonia, and organophosphate)
  Hydrocarbon or paraquat ingestion
  Pancreatitis, uremia, or miliary TB (rare)
  Near drowning.

ARDS Signs & Symptoms

 Assess your patient for the following signs and symptoms:
  Rapid, shallow breathing; dyspnea; and hypoxemia
  Intercostal and suprasternal retractions, crackles, and rhonchi
  Restlessness, apprehension, mental sluggishness, and motor dysfunction.

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