ARDS is a form of pulmonary edema that leads to ARF, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results from increased permeability of the alveolocapillary membrane. Although severe ARDS may be fatal, recovering patients may have little or no permanent lung damage.
The following are risk factors for developing ARDS.
Causes of ARDS
ARDS may result from:
• Aspiration of gastric contents
• Sepsis (primarily gram-negative)
• Trauma (such as lung contusion, head injury, and long-bone fracture with fat emboli)
• Oxygen toxicity
• Viral, bacterial, or fungal pneumonia
• Microemboli (fat or air emboli or disseminated intravascular coagulation)
• Drug overdose (such as barbiturates and opioids)
• Blood transfusion
• Smoke or chemical inhalation (such as nitrous oxide, chlorine, ammonia, and organophosphate)
• Hydrocarbon or paraquat ingestion
• Pancreatitis, uremia, or miliary TB (rare)
• Near drowning.
ARDS Signs & Symptoms
Assess your patient for the following signs and symptoms:
• Rapid, shallow breathing; dyspnea; and hypoxemia
• Intercostal and suprasternal retractions, crackles, and rhonchi
• Restlessness, apprehension, mental sluggishness, and motor dysfunction.