Hyperkalemia- high Potassium in your blood may occur if both kidneys do not work properly and cannot remove potassium from your body or if your body`s cells release too much potassium. Kidney disease is the most common cause of Hyperkalemia. Kidneys help to control the balance of Potassium in the body.
Causes of Hyperkalemia
• Decreased renal excretion related to oliguric renal failure, potassium-sparing diuretic use, or adrenal steroid deficiency.
• High potassium intake related to the improper use of oral supplements, excessive use of salt substitutes, or rapid infusion of potassium solutions.
• Acidosis, tissue damage, or malignant cell lysis after chemotherapy.
Nursing Care in Hyperkalemia
• Identify patients at risk for hyperkalemia.
• Assess the patient’s diet for excess use of salt substitutes.
• Assess for signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia.
• Assess arterial blood gas studies for metabolic alkalosis.
• Take precautions when drawing blood samples. A falsely elevated potassium level can result from hemolysis or prolonged tourniquet application.
• Have emergency equipment available.
• Administer calcium gluconate to decrease myocardial irritability.
• Administer insulin and I.V. glucose to move potassium back into cells. Carefully monitor serum glucose levels.
• Administer sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) with 70% sorbitol to exchange sodium ions for potassium ions in the intestine.