Hypoglycemia vs Hyperglycemia Signs & Symptoms

hypoglycemia-hyperglycemia-nursing-mnemonics

Hypoglycemia occurs when the level of glucose present in the blood falls below a set point:
            (Below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL)
Hypoglycemia means low blood glucose, or blood sugar. Your body needs glucose to have enough energy. After you eat, your blood absorbs glucose. If you eat more sugar than your body needs, your muscles, and liver store the extra. When your blood sugar begins to fall, a hormone tells your liver to release glucose.

The main symptoms associated with hypoglycemia are:
• Sweating
• Fatigue
• Feeling dizzy
Symptoms of hypoglycemia can also include:
• Being pale
• Feeling weak
• Feeling hungry
• A higher heart rate than usual
• Blurred vision
• Confusion
• Convulsions
• Loss of consciousness
• And in extreme cases, coma

hypoglycemia-hyperglycemia-nursing-mnemonics

Key of the treatment.

• Blood transfusion
• I.V. fluid therapy
• Whipple’s operation or pancreatoduodenectomy (excision of the head of the pancreas along with the encircling loop of the duodenum)
• Antineoplastic combinations: fluorouracil, streptozocin (Zanosar), ifosfamide (Ifex), and doxorubicin; gemcitabine and erlitinib (Tarceva)
• Insulin after pancreatic resection to provide adequate exogenous insulin supply
• Opioid analgesics: morphine, meperidine (Demerol), and codeine, which can lead to biliary tract spasm and increase common bile duct pressure (used only when other methods fail)
• Pancreatic enzyme: pancrelipase (Pancrease)

Nursing interventions

• Monitor fluid balance, abdominal girth, metabolic state, and weight daily.
• Replace nutrients I.V., orally, or by nasogastric tube. Impose dietary restrictions, such as a low-sodium or fluid retention diet as required. Maintain a 2,500 calorie diet for the client.
• Administer pain medication, antibiotics, and antipyretics, as necessary.
• Monitor for signs of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia; administer glucose or an antidiabetic agent as necessary. Monitor blood glucose levels.
• Provide emotional support. Before surgery
• Give blood transfusions, vitamin K , antibiotics, and gastric lavage, as necessary. After surgery
• Administer an oral pancreatic enzyme at mealtimes, ifneeded.

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