Important Antidotes Cheat Sheet

Antidotes exist for several important poisons (See Table ). Since the duration of action of some antidotes is shorter than that of the intoxicant, the antidotes may need to be given repeatedly.

Important Antidotes

AntidotePoison(s)
AcetylcysteineAcetaminophen; best given within 8–10 h of overdose
AtropineCholinesterase inhibitors
Bicarbonate, sodiumMembrane-depressant cardiotoxic drugs (eg, quinidine,
tricyclic antidepressants)
CalciumFluoride; calcium channel blockers
DeferoxamineIron salts
Digoxin antibodiesDigoxin and related cardiac glycoside
EsmololCaffeine, theophylline, sympathomimetics
EthanolMethanol, ethylene glycol
Flumazenil
Fomepizole
Glucagon
Glucose
Hydroxocobalamin
Naloxone
Oxygen
Physostigmine
Pralidoxime
Benzodiazepines, zolpidem
Methanol, ethylene glycol
Beta adrenoceptor blockers
Hypoglycemics
Cyanide
Opioid analgesics
Carbon monoxide
Suggested” for muscarinic receptor blockers, NOT tricyclics
Organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors

High-Yield Terms to Learn for Poisoning management

ABCDs:   Mnemonic for the supportive initial treatment of all poisoned patients that stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, and Dextrose or Decontamination

Anion:  gap The difference between the serum concentrations of the major cations (Na+/K+) and (HCO− 3 /CI− ); an increased anion gap indicates the presence of extra anions and is most commonly caused by metabolic acidosis.

Antidote:  A substance that counteracts the effect of a poison

Osmolar gap:  The difference between the measured serum osmolality and the osmolality that is calculated from serum concentrations of sodium, glucose, and BUN; an increased osmolar gap is associated with poisoning due to ethanol and other alcohols.

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