Antidotes exist for several important poisons (See Table ). Since the duration of action of some antidotes is shorter than that of the intoxicant, the antidotes may need to be given repeatedly.
|Acetylcysteine||Acetaminophen; best given within 8–10 h of overdose|
|Bicarbonate, sodium||Membrane-depressant cardiotoxic drugs (eg, quinidine,
|Calcium||Fluoride; calcium channel blockers|
|Digoxin antibodies||Digoxin and related cardiac glycoside|
|Esmolol||Caffeine, theophylline, sympathomimetics|
|Ethanol||Methanol, ethylene glycol|
Methanol, ethylene glycol
Beta adrenoceptor blockers
Suggested” for muscarinic receptor blockers, NOT tricyclics
Organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors
High-Yield Terms to Learn for Poisoning management
ABCDs: Mnemonic for the supportive initial treatment of all poisoned patients that stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, and Dextrose or Decontamination
Anion: gap The difference between the serum concentrations of the major cations (Na+/K+) and (HCO− 3 /CI− ); an increased anion gap indicates the presence of extra anions and is most commonly caused by metabolic acidosis.
Antidote: A substance that counteracts the effect of a poison
Osmolar gap: The difference between the measured serum osmolality and the osmolality that is calculated from serum concentrations of sodium, glucose, and BUN; an increased osmolar gap is associated with poisoning due to ethanol and other alcohols.