Intravenous Therapy

Intravenous Therapy
Intravenous Therapy

 

I. Intravenous Therapy
A. Purpose and uses
1. Used to sustain clients who are unable to take substances orally
2. Replaces water, electrolytes, and nutrients more rapidly than oral administration

3. Provides immediate access to the vascular system for the rapid delivery of specific solutions without the time required for gastrointestinal tract absorption
4. Provides a vascular route for the administration of medication or blood components

 

B. Types of solutions (Table 14-1)
TABLE 14-1 Types of Intravenous Solutions
Solution
Tonicity
0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline); (0.9%
NS)
Isotonic
5% dextrose in water (D5W)
Isotonic (physiologically hypotonic)
5% dextrose in 0.225% saline (D5W/¼ NS)
Isotonic
Lactated Ringer’s (LR)
Isotonic
0.45% sodium chloride (normal saline); (½ NS)
Hypotonic
0.225% sodium chloride (normal saline); (¼ NS)
Hypotonic
0.33% sodium chloride (normal saline); (⅓ NS)
Hypotonic
3% sodium chloride (normal saline); (3% NS)
Hypertonic
5% sodium chloride (normal saline); (5% NS)
Hypertonic
10% dextrose in water (D10W)
Hypertonic
5% dextrose in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal
saline); D
5W/NS
Hypertonic
5% dextrose in 0.45% sodium chloride (normal
saline); (D
5W/½ NS)
Hypertonic
5% dextrose in lactated Ringer’s (D5LR)
Hypertonic
Dextran
Colloid
Albumin
Colloid
1. Isotonic solutions
a. Have the same osmolality as body fluids
b. Increase extracellular fluid volume
c. Do not enter the cells because no osmotic force exists to shift the fluids
2. Hypotonic solutions
a. Are more dilute solutions and have a lower osmolality than body fluids
b. Cause the movement of water into cells by osmosis
c. Should be administered slowly to prevent cellular edema
3. Hypertonic solutions
a. Are more concentrated solutions and have a higher osmolality than body fluids
b. Cause movement of water from cells into the extracellular fluid by osmosis
4. Colloids
a. Also called plasma expanders
b. Pull fluid from the interstitial compartment into the vascular compartment
c. Used to increase the vascular volume rapidly, such as in hemorrhage or severe hypovolemia.

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