NCLEX RN Practice Question # 592

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 592.


 

Naplex

Glomerulonerpher

Glomerulonephritis

Description

  • Term that includes a variety of disorders, most of which are caused by an immunological reaction
  • Results in proliferative and inflammatory changes within the glomerular structure
  • Destruction, inflammation, and sclerosis of the glomeruli of both kidneys occur.
  • The inflammation of the glomeruli results from an antigen-antibody reaction produced from an infection or autoimmune process elsewhere in the body.
  • Loss of kidney function occurs.

Causes

  • Immunological or autoimmune diseases
  • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection
  • History of pharyngitis or tonsillitis 2 to 3 weeks before symptoms

Types

  • Acute glomerulonephritis occurs 5 to 21 days after a streptococcal infection.
  • Chronic glomerulonephritis can occur after the acute phase or slowly over time.

Assessment

  • Gross hematuria
  • Dark, smoky, cola-colored or red-brown urine
  • Proteinuria that produces a persistent and excessive foam in the urine
  • Urinary debris
  • Moderately elevated to high urine specific gravity
  • Low urinary pH
  • Urinalysis shows large numbers of erythrocytes
  • Oliguria or anuria
  • Headache
  • Chills and fever
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
  • Pallor
  • Edema in the face, periorbital area, feet, or generalized
  • Shortness of breath, ascites, pleural effusion, and CHF
  • Abdominal or flank pain
  • Hypertension
  • Reduced visual acuity

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