Practice Question # 642.
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For a client experiencing severe cancer pain (pain intensity of 7 to 10 on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 equals no pain and 10 equals the worst possible pain), which medication should a nurse plan to administer?Correct
Answer & Rationale:
Opioids, such as oxycodone, remain the most frequently prescribed pain medication for severe pain in cancer. Meperidine and propoxyphene are not recommended because these medications cause central nervous system toxicity from metabolites. Pentazocine is used for moderate pain only, and it can cause confusion and hallucinations in older adults and clients with renal impairment.Incorrect
Answer & Rationale:
Opioids, such as oxycodone, remain the most frequently prescribed pain medication for severe pain in cancer. Meperidine and propoxyphene are not recommended because these medications cause central nervous system toxicity from metabolites. Pentazocine is used for moderate pain only, and it can cause confusion and hallucinations in older adults and clients with renal impairment.
Pain control is a vital component of Cancer Management
What is cancer, Study Review
- Cancer is a neoplastic disorder that can involve all body organs with manifestations that vary according to the body system affected and type of tumor cells.
- Cells lose their normal growth-controlling mechanism, and the growth of cells is uncontrolled.
- Cancer produces serious health problems such as impaired immune and hematopoietic (bloodproducing) function, altered gastrointestinal tract structure and function, motor and sensory deficits, and decreased respiratory function.
- Cancer cells move from their original location to other sites.
- Routes of metastasis
- Local seeding: Distribution of shed cancer cells occurs in the local area of the primary tumor.
- Bloodborne metastasis: Tumor cells enter the blood, which is the most common cause of cancer spread.
- Lymphatic spread: Primary sites rich in lymphatics are more susceptible to early metastatic spread.
- Solid tumors: Associated with the organs from which they develop, such as breast cancer or lung cancer
- Hematological cancers: Originate from blood cell–forming tissues, such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma
Grading and staging
- Grading and staging are methods used to describe the tumor.
- These methods describe the extent of the tumor, the extent to which malignancy has increased in size, the involvement of regional nodes, and metastatic development.
- Grading a tumor classifies the cellular aspects of the cancer.
- Staging classifies the clinical aspects of the cancer and degree of metastasis at diagnosis.