NCLEX RN Practice Question # 642

NCLEX examination.

Practice Question # 642.


Nclex

cancer-pain

 

Pain control is a vital component of Cancer Management

What is cancer, Study Review

Description

  • Cancer is a neoplastic disorder that can involve all body organs with manifestations that vary according to the body system affected and type of tumor cells.
  • Cells lose their normal growth-controlling mechanism, and the growth of cells is uncontrolled.
  • Cancer produces serious health problems such as impaired immune and hematopoietic (bloodproducing) function, altered gastrointestinal tract structure and function, motor and sensory deficits, and decreased respiratory function.

 Metastasis

  • Cancer cells move from their original location to other sites.
  • Routes of metastasis
  • Local seeding: Distribution of shed cancer cells occurs in the local area of the primary tumor.
  • Bloodborne metastasis: Tumor cells enter the blood, which is the most common cause of cancer spread.
  • Lymphatic spread: Primary sites rich in lymphatics are more susceptible to early metastatic spread.

Cancer classification

  • Solid tumors: Associated with the organs from which they develop, such as breast cancer or lung cancer
  • Hematological cancers: Originate from blood cell–forming tissues, such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma

Grading and staging

  • Grading and staging are methods used to describe the tumor.
  • These methods describe the extent of the tumor, the extent to which malignancy has increased in size, the involvement of regional nodes, and metastatic development.
  • Grading a tumor classifies the cellular aspects of the cancer.
  • Staging classifies the clinical aspects of the cancer and degree of metastasis at diagnosis.

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