NCLEX RN Practice Question # 951

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 951.

 

nclex quiz

 

Hypocalcemia:

The normal calcium level is 9 to 10.5 mg/dL (2.25 to 2.75 mmol/L)

Description: Hypocalcemia is a serum calcium level lower than 9.0 mg/dL (2.25 mmol/L).

Causes

Inhibition of calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract

  • Inadequate oral intake of calcium
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Malabsorption syndromes such as celiac sprue or Crohn’s disease
  • Inadequate intake of vitamin D
  • End-stage kidney disease
  • Increased calcium excretion

Kidney disease, polyuric phase

  • Diarrhea
  • Steatorrhea
  • Wound drainage, especially gastrointestinal

Conditions that decrease the ionized fraction of calcium

  • Hyperproteinemia
  • Alkalosis
  • Medications such as calcium chelators or binders
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Immobility
  • Removal or destruction of the

 

Nursing Interventions:

  1. Administer calcium supplements orally or calcium intravenously.
  2. When administering calcium intravenously, warm the injection solution to body temperature before administration and administer slowly; monitor for electrocardiographic changes, observe for infiltration, and monitor for hypercalcemia.
  3. Administer medications that increase calcium absorption.
  • Aluminum hydroxide reduces phosphorus levels, causing the countereffect of increasing calcium levels.
  • Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract.
  1. Provide a quiet environment to reduce environmental stimuli.
  2. Initiate seizure precautions.
  3. Move the client carefully, and monitor for signs of a pathological fracture.
  4. Keep 10% calcium gluconate available for treatment of acute calcium deficit.
  5. Instruct the client to consume foods high in calcium

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