NCLEX RN Practice Question # 956

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 956.

 

nclex quiz

 

Fluid Volume Excess

Description

  • Fluid intake or fluid retention exceeds the fluid needs of the body.
  • Fluid volume excess is also called overhydration or fluid overload.
  • The goal of treatment is to restore fluid balance, correct electrolyte imbalances if present, and eliminate or control the underlying cause of the overload.

Types

  1. Isotonic overhydration
  • Known as hypervolemia, isotonic overhydration results from excessive fluid in the extracellular fluid compartment.
  • Only the extracellular fluid compartment is expanded, and fluid does not shift between the extracellular and intracellular compartments.
  • Isotonic overhydration causes circulatory overload and interstitial edema; when severe or when it occurs in a client with poor cardiac function, heart failure and pulmonary edema can result.
  1. Hypertonic overhydration
  • The occurrence of hypertonic overhydration is rare and is caused by an excessive sodium intake.
  • Fluid is drawn from the intracellular fluid compartment; the extracellular fluid volume expands, and the intracellular fluid volume contracts.

  1. Hypotonic overhydration
  • Hypotonic overhydration is known as water intoxication.
  • The excessive fluid moves into the intracellular space, and all body fluid compartments expand.
  • Electrolyte imbalances occur as a result of dilution.

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