In February 2017, the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2017 became effective, as recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The 2017 adult immunization schedule was also reviewed and approved by the professional medical organizations:
Why is it important for nurses?
Nurses are usually the first point-of-contact of patients seeking information about immunizations.
Vaccine formulations and preparations change rapidly over the years. To cope with the frequent changes, advisory committees regularly update immunization recommendations so they can ensure vaccines’ safety and efficiency for the general public. Nurses, like other healthcare professionals, should be champions in educating patients about their options in immunization.
Also, there are special vaccine recommendations for patients with existing comorbidities. Nurses should be aware of this information so they can properly educate their patients when providing nursing care to them.
Adult Immunization Schedule Changes for 2017 Includes:
The major changes in the recommended Adult Immunization Schedule affected four types of vaccines – influenza, human papilloma virus (HPV), meningococcal and hepatitis B vaccines.
LAIV should not be used during the 2016–2017 influenza season.
Adults with a history of egg allergy who have only hives after exposure to egg should receive age-appropriate inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) or recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV).
Adults with a history of egg allergy with symptoms other than hives (e.g., angioedema, respiratory distress, lightheadedness, or recurrent emesis, or who required epinephrine or another emergency medical intervention) may receive age-appropriate IIV or RIV. The selected vaccine should be administered in an inpatient or outpatient medical setting and supervised by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage severe allergic conditions.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
Adult females through age 26 years and adult males through age 21 years who have not received any HPV vaccine should receive a 3-dose series of HPV vaccine at 0, 1–2, and 6 months. Males aged 22 through 26 years may be vaccinated with a 3-dose series of HPV vaccine at 0, 1–2, and 6 months.
Adult females through age 26 years and adult males through age 21 years (and males aged 22 through 26 years who may receive HPV vaccine) who initiated HPV vaccination series before age 15 years and received 2 doses at least 5 months apart are considered adequately vaccinated and do not need an additional dose of HPV vaccine.
Adult females through age 26 years and adult males through age 21 years (and males aged 22 through 26 years who may receive HPV vaccine) who initiated HPV vaccination series before age 15 years and received only 1 dose, or 2 doses less than 5 months apart, are not considered adequately vaccinated and should receive 1 additional dose of HPV vaccine.
Adults with anatomical or functional asplenia or persistent complement component deficiencies should receive a 2-dose primary series of MenACWY, with doses administered at least 2 months apart, and revaccinate every 5 years. They should also receive a series of MenB with either MenB-4C (2 doses administered at least 1 month apart) or MenB-FHbp (3 doses administered at 0, 1–2, and 6 months).
Adults with HIV infection who have not been previously vaccinated should receive a 2-dose primary MenACWY vaccination series, with doses administered at least 2 months apart, and be revaccinated every 5 years. Those who previously received 1 dose of MenACWY should receive a second dose at least 2 months after the first dose. MenB is not routinely recommended for adults with HIV infection, because meningococcal disease in this population is caused primarily by serogroups C, W, and Y.
Microbiologists who are routinely exposed to isolates of Neisseria meningitidis should receive 1 dose of MenACWY and be revaccinated every 5 years if the risk for infection remains, as well as either MenB-4C (2 doses administered at least 1 month apart) or MenB-FHbp (3 doses administered at 0, 1–2, and 6 months).
Adults at risk because of a meningococcal disease outbreak should receive 1 dose of MenACWY if the outbreak is attributable to serogroup A, C, W, or Y; or, if the outbreak is attributable to serogroup B, either MenB-4C (2 doses administered at least 1 month apart) or MenB-FHbp (3 doses administered at 0, 1–2, and 6 months).
Young adults aged 16 through 23 years (preferred age range is 16 through 18 years) who are healthy and not at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease may receive either a 2-dose series of MenB-4C at least 1 month apart or a 2-dose series of MenB-FHbp at 0 and 6 months for short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease.
Hep B Vaccine
Adults with chronic liver disease, including, but not limited to, hepatitis C virus infection, cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level greater than twice the upper limit of normal should receive a HepB series.