Endocrine System

Endocrine System

I. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS A. Functions 1. Maintenance and regulation of vital functions 2. Response to stress and injury 3. Growth and development 4. Energy metabolism 5. Reproduction 6. Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance More »


Causes of Clubbing


Clubbing is symptomatic of chronic hypoxia. Peripheral circulation is diminished and oxygenation of vital organs and tissues is compromised. When you check the fingers, look for clubbing, a possible sign of long-term hypoxia. A fingernail normally enters the skin at

Hypothyroidism VS Hyperthyroidism Signs and Symptoms


Hypothyroidism VS Hyperthyroidism Sing and Symptoms Hypothyroidism, which affects women more commonly than men, occurs when the thyroidgland fails to produce sufficient thyroid hormone. This deficiency in thyroid hormone causes an overall decrease in metabolism. CAUSES Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Malfunction of

Morphine Side Effects


Morphine: Prototype Summary Indications: Relief of moderate to severe acute or chronic pain; preoperative medication; component of combination therapy for severe chronic pain; intraspinal to reduce intractable pain. Actions: Acts as an agonist at specific opioid receptors in the CNS

5 Areas for Listening to the Heart


5 Areas for Listening to the Heart First, identify cardiac auscultation sites. These include aortic, pulmonic, tricuspid, and mitral areas. Most normal heart sounds result from vibrations created by the opening and closing of the heart valves. When valves close,

Renal arteries NCLEX Mnemonics


To remember the branches of the renal arteries, cross your hands in front of you, at the wrist, as shown in the picture. The thumb represents the single posterior segment branch of the renal artery and the four fingers represent