The Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The respiratory system consists of the airways, lungs, bony thorax, and respiratory muscles and functions in conjunction with the central nervous system (CNS). These structures work together to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream and remove excess carbon dioxide from the body. More »


Hypoglycemia vs Hyperglycemia Signs & Symptoms

Hypoglycemia occurs when the level of glucose present in the blood falls below a set point:             (Below 4 mmol/L (72mg/dL) Hypoglycemia means low blood glucose, or blood sugar. Your body needs glucose to have

Dopaminergic Agents Cheat Sheet

Dopaminrgics are drugs that increase the effects of dopamine at receptor sites—have been proven to be even more effective than anticholinergics in the treatment of parkinsonism (see the  following table). Dopaminergic agents include amantadine (Symmetrel), apomorphine (Apokyn), bromocriptine (Parlodel), levodopa

Antihypertensive agents Cheat Sheet

“Treatment of mild to severe hypertension” Antihypertensive agents include angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II–receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, vasodilators, and other antihypertensive agents, including diuretic agents, ganglionic receptors, renin inhibitors, and sympathetic nervous system drugs. See following table for a complete

Causes of Heart Murmurs

Heart murmurs are produced by turbulent flow across an abnormal valve, septal defect or outflow obstruction. ‘Innocent’ murmurs caused by increased volume or velocity of flow through a normal valve occur when stroke volume is increased, e.g. during pregnancy, in

Dumping syndrome Signs & Symptoms

Dumping Syndrome is a rapid emptying of the gastric contents into the small intestine that occurs following gastric resection. Dumping syndrome consists of a series of vasomotor and GI signs and symptoms and occurs in patients who have undergone vagotomy

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