The Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The Anatomy of the Respiratory System

The respiratory system consists of the airways, lungs, bony thorax, and respiratory muscles and functions in conjunction with the central nervous system (CNS). These structures work together to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream and remove excess carbon dioxide from the body. More »


Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Health Benefits Cheat Sheet

Vitamin c is also known as Ascorbic acid: is a powerful reducing agent controlling the redox potential within cells. It is involved in the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline, which is necessary for the formation of collagen. The failure of

Antimigraine Agents Pharmacology Cheat Sheet

For many years, the one standard treatment for migraine headaches was acute analgesia, often involving a narcotic, together with control of lighting and sound and the use of ergot derivatives. In the late 1990s, a new class of drugs, the

Ketosis vs Ketoacidosis: The Difference and dangerous Levels

The words Ketosis & ketoacidosis in terms look and sound are similar; many people often confuse ketoacidosis with ketosis. These conditions have very different meanings and effects on the body. Ketoacidosis is a highly dangerous condition while the ketosis has

Mitral Regurgitation (Valvular heart disease) Signs & Symptoms

Mitral valve regurgitation is also known as mitral regurgitation/Mitral Insufficiency. Mitral regurgitation (MR) can occur due to abnormalities of the valve leaflets, the annulus, the chordae tendineae or papillary muscles, or the left ventricle. The most frequent causes of mitral

Antidysrhythmic Drugs Pharmacology Cheat Sheet

Antidysrhythmic drugs are used to treat dysrthythmias, which is any deviation from the normal rhythm of the heart. Mechanism of Action Antidysrhythmic drugs work by correcting abnormal cardiac function. There are four classes of antidysrhytmics which each have a different