Antidotes:Get this quick facts you need to know before your pharmacology exam.
ANTIDOTES are agents used to counteract the effects of toxic substances or overdose with drugs. They are used in a wide variety of circumstances and can work in many ways.
ADMINISTRATION OF ANTIDOTES
Antidotes counteract the effects of poisons by neutralizing them (e.g. anti body-antigen reactions cheation, chemical binding) or by antagonizing their physiologic effects (e.g, activation of opposing nervous system activity, provision of a competitive metabolic or receptor substrate).
Poisons or conditions with specific antidotes include acetaminophen, anticholinergic agents, anticoagulants, benzodiazepines, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, carbon monoxide, cardiac glycosides, cholinergic agents, cyanide, drug – induced dystonic reactions, ethyleneglycol, fluoride, heavy metals, hypog lycemic agents, isoniazid, membrane-active agents, methemoglobinemia, opioids, sympathomimetics, and a variety of envenomations.
Intravenous lipid emulsion has been shown to be a successfu l antidote for poisoning from various anesthetics and membrane-active agents (e.g. cyclic antidpressantsl, but the exact mechanism of benefit is still under investigation .
Antidotes can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality rates but a re potentially toxic if used for inappropriate reasons. Since t heir safe use requires correct identification of a specific poisoning or syndrome, details of antidotal therapy are discussed with the conditions for which they are indicated.