RENAL CALCULI ( Review)
- Calculi are stones that can form anywhere in the urinary tract; however, the most frequent site is the kidneys.
- Problems resulting from calculi are pain, obstruction, tissue trauma, secondary hemorrhage, and infection.
- The stone can be located through radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; intravenous pyelography; CT scanning; and renal ultrasonography.
- A stone analysis will be done after passage to determine the type of stone and assist in determining
- Urolithiasis refers to the formation of urinary calculi; these form in the ureters.
- Nephrolithiasis refers to the formation of kidney calculi; these form in the renal parenchyma.
- When a calculus occludes the ureter and blocks the flow of urine, the ureter dilates, producing hydroureter .
- If the obstruction is not removed, urinary stasis results in infection, impairment of renal function on the side of the blockage, hydronephrosis , and irreversible kidney damage.
- Family history of stone formation
- Diet high in calcium, vitamin D, protein, oxalate, purines, or alkali
- Obstruction and urinary stasis
- Use of diuretics,which can cause volume depletion
- Urinary tract infections and prolonged urinary catheterization
- Hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism
- Elevated uric acid level, such as in gout
- Renal colic, which originates in the lumbar region and radiates around the side and down to the testicles in men and to the bladder in women
- Ureteral colic, which radiates toward the genitalia and thighs
- Sharp, severe pain of sudden onset
- Dull, aching pain in the kidney
- Nausea and vomiting, pallor, and diaphoresis during acute pain
- Urinary frequency, with alternating retention
- Signs of a urinary tract infection
- Low-grade fever
- High numbers of red blood cells, white blood
- cells, and bacteria noted in the urinalysis report
- Gross hematuria