The renal system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra. Working together, these structures remove wastes from the body, regulate acid-base balance by retaining or excreting hydrogen ions, and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance.
Close Look to the Renal System:
Renal System: As this frontal view suggests, the kidneys constitute the major portion of the renal system. These bean-shaped organs lie near and on either side of the spine at the small of the back, with the left kidney positioned slightly higher than the right. The adrenal glands, perched atop the kidneys, influence blood pressure as well as sodium and water retention by the kidneys.
The kidneys receive blood from the renal arteries, which branch off the abdominal aorta. After passing through a complicated network of smaller blood vessels and nephrons, the filtered blood recirculates through the renal veins, which empty into the inferior vena cava.
Excrete to complete
The kidneys excrete waste products that the nephrons remove from the blood, along with other fluids that constitute the formed urine. Urine passes, by peristalsis, through the ureters to the urinary bladder. As the bladder fills, nerves in the bladder wall relax the sphincter (an action known as the micturition reflex); then a voluntary stimulus occurs, and the urine passes into the urethra and is expelled from the body.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a condition characterized by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Although NS isn’t a disease itself, it results from a specific glomerular defect and indicates renal damage.
What causes Nephrotic Syndrome:
• Primary (idiopathic) glomerulonephritis (affecting children and adults)
• Diabetes mellitus
• Collagen vascular disorders
• Circulatory diseases
• Allergic reactions
• Hereditary nephritis
• Multiple myeloma and other neoplastic diseases
Chronic glomerulonephritis, a slowly progressive, non-infectious disease, is characterized by inflammation of the renal glomeruli. It remains subclinical until the progressive phase begins. By the time it produces symptoms, it’s usually irreversible. It results in eventual renal failure.
What causes it
• Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
• Membranous glomerulopathy
• Focal glomerulosclerosis
• Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Systemic causes include:
• lupus erythematosus
• Goodpasture’s syndrome
• hemolytic uremic syndrome.
The inflammation of the glomeruli that occurs with this condition results in sclerosis, scarring, and eventual renal failure.