Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder resulting from a disturbance in the production, action, and rate of insulin use. There are several types of diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) usually develops in childhood. Type 2 (non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) usually develops after age 30; however, it’s becoming more prevalent in children and young adults. Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs with pregnancy. Secondary diabetes is induced by trauma, surgery, pancreatic disease, or medications and can be treated as type 1 or type 2.
Following are 10 Diabetes terms You should know.
1: Blood Glucose:
The type of sugar in our body and our preferred source of fuel. It is often called blood sugar.
When our bodies have too much blood glucose in our blood. The American diabetes association recommends a blood glucose level of 80-130 mg/dl ( 4.4-7.2) before meals and a blood glucose level less than 1820 mg/dl (10mmol/L) after meals.
When our bodies don’t have enough blood glucose in our blood. The American diabetes association defines hypoglycemia as a blood glucose level less than 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l)
4: Hemoglobin A1C:
HbA1c is a blood test that measures the average blood glucose over the past 3 months.
5: Fasting Blood Glucose:
A blood test that is done when we have not eaten for at least 8 hours. For example if you test your blood glucose in the morning before eating this is your fasting blood glucose.
Insulin is made in the pancreas and helps glucose get into our cells for energy.
Ketones are an acid that can build up in the body when the blood glucose is too high. The body burns fat in an attempt to provide energy to the hungry cells. Ketones are a result of the body burning fat.
8: Diabetic Ketoacidosis:
This happens when ketone levels rise to a dangerous level. The ketones can poison the body and can lead to unconsciousness or coma. This condition is more common in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
9: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome.
This can occur in type II diabetics when blood glucose is extremely high and the individual is dehydrated. This condition can lead to decreased alertness or unconsciousness.
10: Postprandial Blood Glucose Testing:
This is a blood glucose test that is done after a meal is consumed.
Causes of Diabetes includes:
• Autoimmune disease
• Blockage of insulin supply
• Failure of body to produce insulin