- (79% Theophylline), Theophylline Ethylenediamine
- Respiratory stimulant
- pH 8.6 to 9
To obtain maximum benefit with minimal risk of adverse effects, dosing must be individualized based on serum theophylline concentration and patient response. Monitor frequently to avoid toxicity. Only aminophylline premixed in solution or aminophylline containing 20 mg of theophylline for each 25 mg of aminophylline is intended for IV use (approximately 79% theophylline). All doses are based on lean body weight; theophylline does not distribute into fatty tissue. All doses listed are milligrams of aminophylline to be administered.
To determine if the concentration is accumulating or declining from the post–loading dose level, a serum concentration is recommended one expected half-life after starting the continuous infusion; see the following chart or see literature for a complete summary. If the level is declining (higher than average clearance) consider an additional loading dose or increasing the infusion rate. If the level is increasing, assume accumulation and decrease the infusion rate before the level exceeds 20 mcg/mL.
Headache, insomnia, nausea, vomiting most common when peak serum concentrations are less than 20 mcg/mL. Rarely a severe hypersensitivity reaction of the skin (e.g., exfoliative dermatitis) may occur. Toxicity resulting in death may occur suddenly at levels less than 20 mcg/mL, especially in certain populations (see Precautions); may occur more frequently with serum levels above 20 mcg/mL. Anxiety, cardiac arrest, arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation), convulsions, delirium, dizziness, flushing, hyperpyrexia, intractable seizures, nausea, peripheral vascular collapse, persistent vomiting, restlessness, temporary hypotension.