Acid Reflux (GERD) Nclex Quick Facts

GERD is the backflow of gastric or duodenal contents, or both, past the LES, into the esophagus, without associated belching or vomiting. Reflux may or may not cause symptoms or abnormal changes. Persistent reflux may cause reflux esophagitis (inflammation of the esophageal mucosa).

What causes it?

Reflux occurs when LES pressure is deficient or when pressure within the stomach exceeds LES pressure. Predisposing factors include:

Pyloric surgery (alteration or removal of the pylorus), which allows reflux of bile or pancreatic juice
Long-term NG intubation (more than 5 days)
Any agent that decreases LES pressure, such as food, alcohol, cigarettes, anticholinergics (atropine, belladonna, propantheline), and other drugs (morphine, diazepam, and meperidine)
Hiatal hernia (especially in children)
Any condition or position that increases intra-abdominal pressure.

Acid Reflux Quick Facts:

• What is the primary Symptom?
Heartburn (pyrosis)
• What test confirms GERD?
Barium swallow fluoroscopy
• What malfunction allows reflux in GERD?
Lower esophageal sphincter
• What is the client teaching?
Low-fat, high-protein diet, take antacids, avoid lying flat after meals.

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