Some patients find that diet and exercise is not a viable option; for these patients, anti-obesity drugs can be a last resort. Some prescription weight loss drugs are recommended only for short-term use, and thus are of limited usefulness for extremely obese patients, who may need to reduce weight over months or years.
The two most commonly used medications to treat obesity, find in below table.
Orlistat (Xenical) reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. Originally available only by prescription, it was approved by the FDA for over-the-counter sale in February 2007. Orlistat may cause frequent, oily bowel movements (steatorrhea), but if fat in the diet is reduced, symptoms often improve.
Sibutramine (Reductil or Meridia) is an anorectic or appetite suppressant, reducing the desire to eat. Both drugs have side effects. Sibutramine may increase blood pressure and may cause dry mouth, constipation, headache, and insomnia.
Rimonabant (Acomplia) is a recently developed anti-obesity medication. It is cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonist that acts centrally on the brain thus decreasing appetite. These drugs not only cause weight loss, but prevent or reverse the metabolic effects of obesity, such as insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Due to safety concerns, primarily psychiatric in nature, the drug has not received approval in the United States or Canada, either as an anti-obesity treatment or as a smoking-cessation drug.
4. Metformin: in people with Diabetes mellitus type 2.
Exenatide (Byetta) delays gastric emptying and promotes a feeling of satiety. Byetta is currently available as a treatment for Diabetes mellitus type 2. Byetta is recommended only for patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Pramlintide (Symlin) is a synthetic analogue of the hormone Amylin, which in normal people is secreted by the pancreas in response to eating. Amylin delays gastric emptying and promotes a feeling of satiety. Currently, Symlin is only approved to be used along with insulin by Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics. Symlin must be injected at mealtimes.
7. Other drugs:
Other weight loss drugs have also been associated with medical complications, such as fatal pulmonary hypertension and heart valve damage. Many of these substances are related to amphetamine.
Pyruvate is a popular product that may result in a small amount of weight loss. However, pyruvate, which is found in red apples and cheese.
Some anti-obesity drugs have severe or life-threatening side effects. These side effects are often associated with their mechanism of action.
a. High blood pressure.
b. Faster heart rate, palpitations.
c. Closed-angle glaucoma.
d. Drug addiction.
e. Restlessness and agitation.
g. Oily stools, stomach pain, and flatulence.