Antineoplastics Agents Pharmacology Cheat Sheet

Antineoplastics agents are used in Treatment of various types of cancers’ mycosis fungoides, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular course JRA (methotrexate), gynecomastia, oligospermia (tamoxifen).

Antineoplastic drugs include aromatase inhibitors, purine analogs, folic acid antagonists, and nonsteroidal antiestrogens. Aromatase inhibitors work by lowering the body’s production of the female hormone estrogen. Purine analogs inhibit RNA and DNA synthesis.

Folic acid antagonists reversibly bind to dihydrofolate reductase, blocking reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor necessary for purine, protein, and DNA synthesis, resulting in cell death. The exact action of nonsteroidal antiestrogens is unknown. However, it is known that they act as estrogen antagonists.

Adverse Reactions:
• Nausea,
• vomiting,
• anemia,
• leukopenia,
• thrombocytopenia,
• thromboembolism (letrozole, tamoxifen),
• pancreatitis (mercaptopurine),
• renal failure (methotrexate),
• hot flashes (letrozole, tamoxifen).

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