Antiviral Drugs: Uses, dosage Range & Side Effects

Uses of Antiviral Drugs

Treatment of HIV infection. Treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in pts with AIDS, acute herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes (recurrent), mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV), chickenpox, and influenza A viral illness.


Effective antivirals must inhibit virus-specific nucleic acid/ protein synthesis. Possible mechanisms of action of antivirals used for non-HIV infection may include interference with viral DNA synthesis and viral replication, inactivation of viral DNA polymerases, incorporation and termination of the growing viral DNA chain, prevention of release of viral nucleic acid into the host cell, or interference with viral penetration into cells.


Antiviral Drugs: Uses, dosage Range & Side Effects

NameAvailabilityUsesSide Effects
Abacavir (Ziagen)T: 300 mg
OS: 20 mg/ml
HIV infectionNausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, hypersensitivity reactions
Acyclovir (Zovirax)T: 400 mg, 800 mg
C: 200 mg
I: 50 mg/ml
Mucosal/cutaneous HSV-1 and
HSV-2, varicella-zoster (shingles),
genital herpes, herpes simplex,
encephalitis, chickenpox
Malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, light-headedness
Adefovir (Hepsera)T: 10 mgChronic hepatitis BAsthenia (loss of strength, energy), headaches,
abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, dyspepsia
T: 100 mg
C: 100 mg
S: 50 mg/5 ml
Influenza AAnxiety, dizziness, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite
Cidofovir (Vistide)I: 75 mg/mlCMV retinitisDecreased urination, fever, chills, diarrhea, nausea,
vomiting, headaches, loss of appetite
Darunavir (PrezistaT: 75 mg, 150 mg, 400
mg, 600 mg, 800 mg
HIV infectionDiarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches, skin rash, constipation
T: 100 mg, 200 mgHIV infectionDiarrhea, fatigue, rash, headaches, nausea
Didanosine (Videx)C: 125 mg, 200 mg,
250 mg, 400 mg
Powder for suspension:
2 g, 4 g
HIV infectionPeripheral neuropathy, anxiety, headaches, rash,
nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth
Efavirenz (Sustiva)C: 50 mg, 200 mg
T: 600 mg
HIV infectionDiarrhea, dizziness, headaches, insomnia, nausea,
vomiting, drowsiness
Etravirine (Intelence)T: 25 mg, 100 mg, 200 mgHIV infectionRash, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Famciclovir (Famvir)T: 125 mg, 250 mg,
500 mg
Herpes zoster, genital herpes, herpes
labialis, mucosal/cutaneous herpes simplex
Headaches, nausea
Foscarnet (Foscavir)I: 24 mg/mlCMV retinitis, HSV infectionsDecreased urination, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,
dizziness, fatigue, headaches
I: 500 mgCMV retinitis, CMV diseaseSore throat, fever, unusual bleeding/bruising
Indinavir (Crixivan)C: 200 mg, 400 mgHIV infectionBlood in urine, weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
headaches, insomnia, altered taste
Lamivudine (Epivir)T: 100 mg, 150 mg,
300 mg OS: 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml
HIV infection, chronic hepatitis BNausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, paresthesia
T: 100 mg/25 mg, 200
mg/50 mg
OS: 80 mg/20 mg per ml
HIV infectionDiarrhea, nausea
Maraviroc (Selzentry)T: 150 mg, 300 mgHIV infectionCough, pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, rash,
musculoskeletal symptoms, abdominal pain, dizziness
Nelfinavir (Viracept)T: 250 mg, 625 mgHIV infectionDiarrhea
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)C: 30 mg, 45 mg, 75 mg S: 6 mg/mlInfluenza A or BDiarrhea, nausea, vomiting
T: 400 mg
T (chew): 25 mg, 100 mg
HIV infectionNausea, headache, diarrhea, pyrexia
Ribavirin (Virazole)Aerosol: 6 g
OS: 40 mg/ml
T: 200 mg, 400 mg, 600 mg
Lowers respiratory infections in
infants, children due to respiratory
syncytial virus (RSV), chronic
hepatitis C

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