Asthma Medicines

Asthma Medical Review

Description

  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways.
  • Asthma is classified based on disease severity; management includes medications, environmental control of allergens, and child and family education.
  • The allergic reaction in the airways caused by the precipitant can result in an immediate reaction with obstruction occurring, and it can result in a late bronchial obstructive reaction several hours after the initial exposure to the precipitant.
  • Mast cell release of histamine leads to a bronchoconstrictive process, bronchospasm, and obstruction.
  • Diagnosis is made based on the child’s symptoms, history and physical examination, chest radiograph, and laboratory tests.
  • Precipitants may trigger an asthma attack.
  • Status asthmaticus is an acute asthma attack, and the child displays respiratory distress despite vigorous treatment measures; this is a medical emergency that can result in respiratory failure and death if not treated.

Asthma Medicines

 

Asthma Medicines (Preparations Procedure)

  1. Salbutamol (Albuterol): 2–4 mg oral, 0.25–0.5 mg i.m./s.c., 100–200 μg by inhalation; ASTHALIN 2, 4 mg tab., 8 mg SR tab., 2 mg/5 ml syrup, 100 μg metered dose inhaler; 5 mg/ml respirator soln., 200 μg rota caps; CROYSAL 0.5 mg/ml inj, SALOL 2.5 mg/3 ml inj; VENTORLIN 2 mg/5 ml syr, 4 mg, 8 mg CR caps., DERIHALER 100 μg metered dose inhaler.
  2. Terbutaline: 5 mg oral, 0.25 mg s.c., 250 μg by inhalation; TERBUTALINE, BRICAREX 2.5, 5 mg tab., 3 mg/ 5 ml syrup, 0.5 mg/ml inj; MISTHALER 250 μg/metered dose, 10 mg/ml nebulizing soln.; BRICANYL 0.5 mg/ml inj, 2.5 mg, 5 mg tabs, 1.5 mg/5 ml syr.
  3. Bambuterol: 10–20 mg OD in the evening; BAMBUDIL 10 mg, 20 mg tabs, 5 mg/5 ml oral soln; BETADAY 10, 20 mg tabs.
  4. Salmeterol: 50–100 μg by inhalation; SALMETER, SEROBID 25 μg per metered dose inhaler; 2 puffs BD; severe cases 4 puffs BD; also SEROBID ROTACAPS 50 μg; 1–2 caps BD by inhalation. SEROFLO—100/250/500 ROTACAPS: Salmeterol 50 μg + fluticasone 100 μg/250 μg/500 μg per rotacap SEROFLO—125/250, COMBITIDE—125/250, INHALERS: Salmeterol 25 μg + fluticasone 125 μg or 250 μg per puff.
  5. Formoterol: 12–24 μg by inhalation twice daily; FORATEC 12 μg rotacaps.
  6. Theophylline (anhydrous): 100–300 mg TDS (15 mg/kg/day), THEOLONG 100, 200 mg SR cap., DURALYN-CR 400 mg continuous release cap, UNICONTIN 400 mg, 600 mg CR tabs, THEOBID 200, 300 mg tabs.
  7. Aminophylline (Theophylline-ethylenediamine; 85% theophylline): water soluble, can be injected i.v. but not i.m. or s.c., 250–500 mg oral or slow i.v. injection; children 7.5 mg/kg i.v.; AMINOPHYLLINE 100 mg tab, 250 mg/10 ml inj.
  8. Hydroxyethyl theophylline (Etophylline, 80% theophylline): water soluble; can be injected i.v. and i.m. (but not s.c.), 250 mg oral/i.m./i.v.; DERIPHYLLIN 100 mg tab., 300 mg SR tab., 220 mg/2 ml inj.

 

  1. Choline theophyllinate (Oxtriphylline; 64% theophylline): 250–500 mg oral; CHOLIPHYLLINE 125 mg cap., 125 mg/5 ml elixir.
  2. Theophylline ethanolate of piperazine: 250–500 mg oral or i.v.; CADIPHYLLATE, 80 mg/5 ml elixir; ETOPHYLATE 125 mg/5 ml syrup.
  3. Doxophylline: 400 mg OD-BD, Children 12 mg/kg/day; DOXORIL 400 mg tab, 100 mg/5 ml syr.
  4. Ipratropium bromide: 40–80 μg by inhalation; IPRAVENT 20 μg/puff metered dose inhaler, 2 puffs 3–4 times daily; 250 μg/ml respirator soln., 0.4–2 ml nebulized in conjunction with a β2 agonist 2–4 times daily.
  5. Tiotropium bromide: 18 μg by inhalation; TIOVA 18 μg rotacaps; 1 rotacap by inhalation OD.
  6. Montelukast: 10 mg OD; children 2–5 yr 4 mg OD, 6–14 yr 5 mg OD in the evening; EMLUKAST, MONTAIR, VENTAIR 4 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg tabs.
  7. Zafirlukast: 20 mg BD; children 5–11 yr 10 mg BD; ZUVAIR 10 mg, 20 mg tabs.
  8. Sodium cromoglycate: 2–10 mg by inhalation 3–4 times a day; FINTAL inhaler: 1 mg metered dose aerosol; 2 puffs 4 times daily. CROMAL-5 INHALER: 5 mg metered dose aerosol, 2 puffs 4 times daily.
  9. Ketotifen: 1–2 mg BD; children 0.5 mg BD; ASTHAFEN 1 mg tab, 1 mg/5 ml syrup; KETOVENT 1 mg tab.
  10. Beclomethasone dipropionate: Initially 100–200 μg BD by inhalation, increase as needed upto 400 μg QID;

BECLATE INHALER 50 μg, 100 μg, 200 μg per metered dose, 200 doses inhaler, BECORIDE 50, 100, 250 μg per puff inhaler.

BECLATE ROTACAPS (with rotahaler) 100, 200, 400 μg powder per cap. AEROCORT INHALER 50 μg/metered aerosol dose with salbutamol 100 μg. AEROCORT ROTACAPS 100 μg with salbutamol 200 μg rotacaps (with rotahaler).

  1. Budesonide: 200–400 μg BD–QID by inhalation in asthma; 200–400 μg/day by intranasal spray for allergic rhinitis. Drugs for Bronchial Asthma.

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