Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any narrowing or obstruction of arterial lumina that interferes with cardiac perfusion. Deprived of sufficient blood, the myocardium can develop various ischemic diseases, including angina pectoris, MI, heart failure, sudden death, and cardiac arrhythmias.
CAD affects more Whites than Blacks and more men than women. After menopause, however, the risk of CAD in women increases to equal that of men. CAD occurs more commonly in industrial countries than underdeveloped areas and affects affluent people more than poor people.
What causes it:
Most commonly, atherosclerosis leads to CAD. Other possible causes include:
- Coronary artery spasm
- Certain infectious diseases
- Congenital abnormalities. Patients with certain risk factors appear to face a greater likelihood of developing CAD. These factors include:
- Family history of heart disease
- High-fat, high-carbohydrate diet
- Sedentary lifestyle
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most prevalent type of cardiovascular disease. For this reason, it is important for professionals to become familiar with the various types of coronary artery conditions and the methods for assessing, preventing, and treating these disorders medically and surgically.