(Today there are over 2.9 million nurses in America Or one for every 102 Americans Caring for over 8 million Americans a day.)
Historic role of Nurses:
Phoebe- 165-180 AD
Miss Phoebe was first recorded nurse, she was sent to rome by Paul to nurse both men and women. She herself has also been a helper of many Romans 16:1-3.
Christian- 325 AD:
Christian nurses won friends through caring for the sick during smallpox epidemics. Unlike pagans before the first Council of Nicea started the construction of a hospital in every cathedral town. Caesarea ( Turkey and Constantinople were some of the earliest sites. The first hospitals included housing for doctors and nurses separate sections for lepers and space for medical and pharmacological studies.
In Merida, Spain a xenodochium was established. This was an inn for travelers and hospital for citizens and local farmers.
Emperor Charlemagne decrees old hospitals in decay to be restored.
Islamic hospital at Kairouan, Tunisia founded. Male nurses attend male patients, and female nurses the women. Waiting rooms are available.
900 ’s AD:
Catholic orderof nuns- Carmelites- created to care for the sick.
1200 ‘s AD:
Dominican and Franciscan orders created, beginning a long lineage of nursing the sick.
With the Protestant Reformation comes the shutting down of monasteries and convents. Some hospitals continue in government hands.
Nursing ranks dissipated as women forced to remain at home.
Deaconess houses open in Germany, for women to receive training in pastoral care. They pledge five years of service in exchange.
Birth of Modern Nursing:
• Florence Nightingale lays the foundation of professional nursing in the book Notes on Nursing.
• Royal Victoria Hospital is opened by Queen Victoria to train caretakers and provide for soldiers.
• Nurses accompany troops to the field hospitals during war, with over 2000 nurses serving in the Anglo-Boer war of 1889-1902-
• Canada’s first training school opens at General and Marine Hospital.
• Progress seen in Licensing Legislation, university training nursing journals and birth of professional organizations.
11000 Catholic sisters running Frances 1500 hospitals.
• Linda Richards graduates as Americas first professionally trained nurse in Boston.
• American Red cross started in 1881by Clara Barton a Civil war nurse known as the angel of the battlefield.