NCLEX RN Practice Question # 467

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Meniere’s syndrome

Description

  • Meniere’s syndrome is also called endolymphatic hydrops; it refers to dilation of the endolymphatic system by overproduction or decreased reabsorption of endolymphatic fluid.
  • The syndrome is characterized by tinnitus, unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and vertigo.
  • Symptoms occur in attacks and last for several days, and the client becomes totally incapacitated during the attacks.
  • Initial hearing loss is reversible but as the frequency of attacks continues, hearing loss becomes permanent. A priority nursing intervention in the care of a client with Meniere’s syndrome is instituting safety measures.

Causes

  • Any factor that increases endolymphatic secretion in the labyrinth
  • Viral and bacterial infections
  • Allergic reactions
  • Biochemical disturbances
  • Vascular disturbance, producing changes in the microcirculation in the labyrinth
  • Long-term stress may be a contributing factor.

Assessment

  • Feelings of fullness in the ear
  • Tinnitus, as a continuous low-pitched roar or humming sound, that is present much of the time but worsens just before and during severe attacks
  • Hearing loss that is worse during an attack
  • Vertigo, periods of whirling, that might cause the client to fall to the ground
  • Vertigo that is so intense that even while lying down, the client holds the bed or ground in an attempt to prevent the whirling
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Nystagmus
  • Severe headaches

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