NCLEX RN Practice Question # 534

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NCLEX Practice Questions

 

STROKE (BRAIN ATTACK)

Description

  • A stroke or brain attack, formerly known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a sudden focal neurological deficit caused by cerebrovascular disease.
  • A stroke is a syndrome in which the cerebral circulation is interrupted, causing neurological deficits.
  • Cerebral anoxia lasting longer than 10 minutes causes cerebral infarction with irreversible change.
  • Cerebral edema and congestion cause further dysfunction.
  • Diagnosis is determined by a CT scan, electroencephalography, cerebral arteriography, and MRI.
  • Transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign of an impending stroke
  • The permanent disability cannot be determined until the cerebral edema subsides.
  • The order in which function may return is facial, swallowing, lower limb, speech, and arms.
  • Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical intervention used in stroke management; it is targeted at stroke prevention, especially in clients with symptomatic carotid stenosis.

Causes

  • Thrombosis
  • Embolism
  • Hemorrhage from rupture of a vessel

Risk factors

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Hypertension
  • Anticoagulation therapy
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Oral contraceptives

 

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