NCLEX RN Practice Question # 604

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 604.



CHEMOTHERAPY side effects



  • Chemotherapy kills or inhibits the reproduction of neoplastic cells and kills normal cells.
  • The effects are systemic because chemotherapy is usually administered systemically.
  • Normal cells most profoundly affected include those of the skin, hair, and lining of the gastrointestinal tract, spermatocytes, and hematopoietic cells.
  • Cell cycle phase–specific medications affect cells only during a certain phase of the reproductive cycle, and cell cycle phase–nonspecific medications affect cells in any phase of the reproductive cycle.
  • Usually, several chemotherapy and biotherapy agents are used in combination (combination therapy) to increase the therapeutic response.
  • Combination chemotherapy is planned by the physician so that medications with overlapping toxicities and nadirs (the time during which bone marrow activity and white blood cell counts are at their lowest) at or near the same time are not administered; this will minimize immunosuppression.
  • Chemotherapy may be combined with other treatments, such as surgery and radiation.
  • The preferred route of administration is intravenously.
  • Common side effects include fatigue, alopecia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, skin changes, and myelosuppression (neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia).

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