NCLEX RN Practice Question # 617

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 617.


 

Nclex

Diabetes Type 2
Diabetes Type 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIABETES MELLITUS

Description

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells,which produce insulin; this results in absolute insulin deficiency.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus usually arises because of insulin resistance, in which the body fails to use insulin properly, combined with relative (rather than absolute) insulin deficiency.
  • Complete insulin deficiency requires the use of exogenous insulin to promote appropriate glucose use and to prevent complications related to elevated blood glucose levels, such as hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and death.
  • Diagnosis is based on the presence of classic symptoms and an elevated blood glucose level (normal blood glucose level is 70 to 110 mg/dL).
  • Children may need to be admitted directly to the pediatric intensive care unit because of the manifestations of diabetic ketoacidosis, which may be the initial occurrence leading to diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

Assessment

  • Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Weight loss
  • Unexplained fatigue or lethargy
  • Headaches
  • Stomachaches
  • Occasional enuresis in a previously toilettrained child
  • Vaginitis in adolescent girls (caused by Candida, which thrives in hyperglycemic tissues)
  • Fruity odor to breath
  • Dehydration
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow wound healing
  • Changes in level of consciousness

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