NCLEX RN Practice Question # 635

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 635.


Nclex

acute-myeloid-leukemia

LEUKEMIA

Description

  • Leukemia is a malignant increase in the number of leukocytes, usually at an immature stage, in the bone marrow.
  • Leukemia affects the bone marrow, causing anemia from decreased erythrocytes, infection from neutropenia, and bleeding from decreased platelet production (thrombocytopenia).
  • The cause is unknown; it seems to involve genetic damage of cells, leading to the transformation of cells from a normal state to a malignant state.
  • Risk factors include genetic, viral, immunological, and environmental factors and exposure to radiation, chemicals, and medications.
  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the most frequent type of cancer in children; peak onset is age 2 to 6 years.
  • Leukemia is more common in boys than girls after 1 year of age.
  • Prognosis depends on various factors such as age at diagnosis, initial white blood cell count, type of cell involved, and sex of the child.
  • Treatment involves chemotherapy and possibly radiation.
  • The phases of chemotherapy include induction, which achieves a complete remission or disappearance of leukemic cells; intensification or consolidation therapy, which decreases the tumor burden further; central nervous system prophylactic therapy, which prevents leukemic cells from invading the central nervous system;

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