NCLEX RN Practice Question # 652

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 652.


Acute respiratory distress syndrome

A form of pulmonary edema that leads to ARF, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results from increased permeability of the alveolocapillary membrane. Although severe ARDS may be fatal, recovering patients may have little or no permanent lung damage.

What causes it?

ARDS may result from:

• Aspiration of gastric contents

• Sepsis (primarily gram-negative)

• Trauma (such as lung contusion, head injury, and long-bone fracture with fat emboli)

• Oxygen toxicity

• Viral, bacterial, or fungal pneumonia

• Microemboli (fat or air emboli or disseminated intravascular coagulation)

• Drug overdose (such as barbiturates and opioids)

• Blood transfusion

• Smoke or chemical inhalation (such as nitrous oxide, chlorine, ammonia, and organophosphate)

• Hydrocarbon or paraquat ingestion

• Pancreatitis, uremia, or miliary TB (rare)

• Near drowning.

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