NCLEX RN Practice Question # 695

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 695.



The sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs , are drugs that inhibit folic acid synthesis. Sulfonamides include sulfadiazine (generic), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), and cotrimoxazole (Septra, Bactrim).

Adverse Effects

Adverse effects associated with sulfonamides include GI effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, stomatitis, and hepatic injury, which are all related to direct irritation of the GI tract and the death of normal bacteria. Renal effects are related to the filtration of the drug in the glomerulus and include crystalluria, hematuria, and proteinuria, which can progress to a nephritic syndrome and possible toxic nephrosis. CNS effects include headache, dizziness, vertigo, ataxia, convulsions, and depression (possibly related to drug effects on the nerves). Bone marrow depression may occur and is related to drug effects on the cells that turn over rapidly in the bone marrow.

Dermatological effects include photosensitivity and rash related to direct effects on the dermal cells. A wide range of hypersensitivity reactions may also occur.


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