NCLEX RN Practice Question # 865

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 865.


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Kidney Functions

Vital to the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, the kidneys normally filter 170 L of plasma every day in the adult, while excreting only 1.5 L of urine. They act both autonomously and in response to blood-borne messengers, such as aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Major functions of the kidneys in maintaining normal fluid balance include the following:

  • Regulation of ECF volume and osmolality by selective retention and excretion of body fluids
  • Regulation of electrolyte levels in the ECF by selective retention of needed substances and excretion of unneeded substances

Lung Functions:

The lungs are also vital in maintaining homeostasis. Through exhalation, the lungs remove approximately 300 mL of water daily in the normal adult. Abnormal conditions, such as hyperpnea (abnormally deep respiration) or continuous coughing, increase this loss; mechanical ventilation with excessive moisture decreases it. The lungs also have a major role in maintaining acid–base balance. Changes from normal aging result in decreased respiratory function, causing increased difficulty in pH regulation in older adults with major illness or trauma.

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