NCLEX RN Practice Question # 867

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 867.


nclex examination


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus that develops when a severe insulin deficiency occurs. The main clinical manifestations include hyperglycemia, dehydration, ketosis, and acidosis.


Nursing Interventions

Restore circulating blood volume and protect against cerebral, coronary, and renal hypoperfusion.

Treat dehydration with rapid IV infusions of 0.9% or 0.45% NS as prescribed; dextrose is added to IV fluids when the blood glucose level reaches 250 to 300 mg/dL (14 to 17 mmol/L). Too rapid administration of IV fluids; use of the incorrect types of IV fluids, particularly hypotonic solutions; and correcting the blood glucose level too rapidly can lead to cerebral edema.

Treat hyperglycemia with insulin administered intravenously as prescribed.

Correct electrolyte imbalances (potassium level may be elevated as a result of dehydration and acidosis).

Monitor potassium level closely, because when the client receives treatment for the dehydration and acidosis, the serum potassium level will decrease and potassium replacement may be required.

Cardiac monitoring should be in place for the client with DKA due to risks associated with abnormal serum potassium levels.

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