NCLEX RN Practice Question # 955

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 955.


nclex quiz


Fluid Volume Deficit


  • Dehydration occurs when the fluid intake of the body is not sufficient to meet the fluid needs of the body.
  • The goal of treatment is to restore fluid volume, replace electrolytes as needed, and eliminate the cause of the fluid volume deficit.

Types of fluid volume deficits

  1. Isotonic dehydration
  • Water and dissolved electrolytes are lost in equal proportions.
  • Known as hypovolemia, isotonic dehydration is the most common type of dehydration.
  • Isotonic dehydration results in decreased circulating blood volume and inadequate tissue perfusion.
  1. Hypertonic dehydration
  • Water loss exceeds electrolyte loss.
  • The clinical problems that occur result from alterations in the concentrations of specific plasma electrolytes.
  • Fluid moves from the intracellular compartment into the plasma and interstitial fluid spaces, causing cellular dehydration and shrinkage.
  1. Hypotonic dehydration
  • Electrolyte loss exceeds water loss.
  • The clinical problems that occur result from fluid shifts between compartments, causing a decrease in plasma volume.
  • Fluid moves from the plasma and interstitial fluid spaces into the cells, causing a plasma volume deficit and causing the cells to swell.

Causes of fluid volume deficits

  1. Isotonic dehydration
  • Inadequate intake of fluids and solutes
  • Fluid shifts between compartments c. Excessive losses of isotonic body fluids
  1. Hypertonic dehydration—conditions that increase fluid loss, such as excessive perspiration, hyperventilation, ketoacidosis, prolonged fevers, diarrhea, early-stage kidney disease, and diabetes insipidus
  2. Hypotonic dehydration
  • Chronic illness
  • Excessive fluid replacement (hypotonic)
  • Kidney disease
  • Chronic malnutrition

Leave a Reply