NCLEX RN Quiz # 1019

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # 1019.

 

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Osteoporosis is a disease that threatens more than 28 million Americans (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2000). Characteristics of osteoporosis include a reduction of bone density and a change in bone structure, both of which increase susceptibility to fracture. The normal homeostatic bone turnover is altered: the rate of bone resorption is greater than the rate of bone formation, resulting in a reduced total bone mass.

Suboptimal bone mass development in children and teens contributes to the development of osteoporosis. With osteoporosis, the bones become progressively porous, brittle, and fragile; they fracture easily under stresses that would not break normal bone. Osteoporosis frequently results in compression fractures.

Primary osteoporosis occurs in women after menopause and later in life in men, but it is not merely a consequence of aging. Failure to develop optimal peak bone mass during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood contributes to the development of osteoporosis without resultant bone loss. Early identification of at-risk teenagers and young adults, increased calcium intake, participation in regular weight-bearing exercise, and modification of lifestyle (eg, reduced use of caffeine, cigarettes, and alcohol) are interventions that decrease the risk for development of osteoporosis, fractures, and associated disability later in life. Secondary osteoporosis is the result of medications or other conditions and diseases that affect bone metabolism. Specific disease states (eg, celiac disease, hypogonadism) and medications (eg, corticosteroids, antiseizure medications) that place patients at risk need to be identified and therapies instituted to reverse the development of osteoporosis.

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