Primary treatment for Myocardial infarction ( MI )seeks to relieve pain, stabilize heart rhythm, revascularize the coronary artery, preserve myocardial tissue, and reduce cardiac workload. These treatments include thrombolytic therapy and PTCA.
To preserve myocardial tissue, thrombolytic therapy should start within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms. This therapy involves administrating medications such as alteplase (Activase) or reteplase (Retavase). However, because of the nature of thrombolytic drugs, they carry many precautions and contraindications.
PTCA is another option for opening blocked or narrowed arteries. If PTCA is performed soon after the onset of symptoms, the thrombolytic agent can be administered directly into the coronary artery.
Drugs to treat the Myocardial infarction
Morphine: Administering morphine for analgesia (because pain stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to an increase in heart rate and vasoconstriction)
Oxygen: Delivering oxygen to increase oxygenation of the blood.
Aspirin: administering aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation.
Nitrates: Administering sublingual or I.V. nitroglycerin to relieve chest pain, unless systolic blood pressure is less than 90 mm Hg or heart rate is less than 50 or greater than 100 beats/minute